This guide covers uncomplicated ideas and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with study subsidized through ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 1,000 pages and 39 chapters protecting normal engineering details, simple fabrics, weather information, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and logos, I-P to SI conversions, and actual houses of fabrics.
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Extra info for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (SI Edition)
Thus, HLf = f ( 5 ) : ; ) V where L is the length of conduit of diameter D and f is the DarcyWeisbach friction factor. Sometimes a numerically different relation is used with the Fanning friction factor (114 of the Darcy friction factorf). 05. 27c/Dh) (7/Re,,,)09 (el 16 B where Re = VD/v and f = 64IRe. Thus, for laminar flow, the friction factor varies inversely with the Reynolds number. The value of 64lRe varies with channel shape. A good summary of shape factors is provided by Incropera and DeWitt (2002).
The usual procedure is as follows: 1. Assume a value ofJ; usually the fully rough value for the given values of E and D. 2. Use this value offin the energy calculation and solve for Q. Fig. 14 Diagram for Example 2 errors can occur if the relative roughness does not correspond to that used whenj&was fixed. It is unlikely that fitting losses involving separation are affected by pipe roughness. The effective length method for fitting loss evaluation is still useful. When a conduit contains a number of section changes or fittings, the values of K are added to the f L I D friction loss, or the L e f / D of the fittings are added to the conduit length LID for evaluating the total loss HL.
Sometimes the following alternative coefficient is used: as given by Equation (17). Then, Equation (47) becomes 7 The general mode of variation in C, for orifices and venturis is indicated in Figure 19 as a function of Reynolds number and, to a lesser extent, diameter ratio b. For Reynolds numbers less than 10, the coefficient varies as f i . The elbow meter uses the pressure difference inside and outside the bend as the metering signal (Murdock et al. 1964). Momentum analysis gives the flow rate as where R is the radius of curvature of the bend.