By John S. Saul
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Additional info for A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in Mozambique
Leafing through the constitution one finds that the paragraphs in which the relationship between the president and the legislative assembly is defined are the only absolute, positive, uncontradicted, untwistable ones that it contains. Here we see the bourgeois republicans making themselves secure. [Chapter V] §§ 45–70 of the constitution are so drafted that the national assembly can remove the president constitutionally, but the president can remove the national assembly only unconstitutionally, by removing the constitution itself.
The highest echelons of the army, the universities, the church, the legal profession, the academy and the press divided themselves between the two camps, though in varying proportions. Here in the bourgeois republic, which bore neither the name of Bourbon nor that of Orléans, but rather the name capital, they found a type of state through which they could rule conjointly. The June insurrection [of 1848] had already united them in the ‘party of order’. The next business was to remove the coterie of bourgeois republicans who still held seats in the national assembly.
When the national assembly met, the party of order immediately provoked the montagne. The bourgeoisie just then felt the necessity of getting rid of the petty bourgeois democrats, just as a year before it had realised the necessity of putting an end to the revolutionary proletariat. Yet the situation of its adversary was different. The strength of the proletarian party lay in the streets, that of the petty bourgeoisie in the national assembly itself. It was therefore a question of luring them from the national assembly onto the streets and making them destroy their parliamentary power themselves, before time and opportunity could consolidate it.