By Zhou Jianren
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The efferent connections of the PAG to the SC are indirect. The PAG neurons project to the serotoninergic raphe nuclei of the medulla oblongata and to the noradrenergic nuclei in the dorsolateral pons (Van Bockstaele et al. 1991; Bajic and Proudﬁt 1999). Both the catecholaminergic and indolaminergic neuronal groups project heavily to the SC and to the STN. From the serotoninergic groups, the largest contribution of raphespinal connections is provided by nucl. raphe magnus, followed by the pallidus, obscurus and pontis raphe nuclei (Bowker et al.
1999; Andrew and Craig 2001). The neurotransmitter of the STT neurons is glutamate (Ericson et al. 1995; Blomqvist et al. 1996) and the STT cells also express peptides as cotransmitters (Ju et al. 1987; Battaglia et al. 1992; Battaglia and Rustioni 1992; Todd and Spike 1993; Broman 1994). Lee et al. (1993) claimed that some STT neurons contain NOS, but for the contrary see Kayalioglu et al. (1999) and Usunoff et al. (1999). Most of the cells project to the contralateral thalamus. However, in experimental animals a fairly signiﬁcant number of ipsilaterally projecting cells (approximately 10% of the total STT neuronal population) were detected (Burstein et al.
The mean conduction velocity was estimated by Rossi et al. 87 m/s. The cells of origin are located mainly in laminae I and IV–VI. Few STT neurons are located in lamina X (around the central canal), and in laminae VII and VIII (in the ventral horn, dorsal to the “motoneuronal” lamina IX) (Willis et al. 1979; Granum 1986; Kemplay and Webster 1986; Apkarian and Hodge 1989a, b; Burstein et al. 1990b; Willis and Coggeshall 1991; Craig 1996b; Usunoff et al. 1999; Andrew and Craig 2001). The neurotransmitter of the STT neurons is glutamate (Ericson et al.