Antiquity: From the Brith of Sumerian Civilization to the by Norman F. Cantor

By Norman F. Cantor

Bestselling writer Norman Cantor provides this compact yet magisterial survey of the traditional world—from the start of Sumerian civilization round 3500 B.C. within the Tigris-Euphrates valley (present-day Iraq) to the autumn of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476. In Antiquity, Cantor covers such matters as Classical Greece, Judaism, the founding of Christianity, and the triumph and decline of Rome.

In this attention-grabbing and finished research, the writer explores social and cultural heritage, in addition to the political and monetary elements of his narrative. He explains best issues in faith and philosophy and discusses the surroundings, inhabitants, and public future health. together with his signature authority and perception, Cantor highlights the nice books and ideas of antiquity that proceed to steer tradition at the present time.

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Additional info for Antiquity: From the Brith of Sumerian Civilization to the Fall of the Roman Empire

Sample text

The literary division of the discipline, scientia interpretandi, was understood to have four main parts or methodological divisions – lectio, the principles for reading a text aloud from a manuscript, including the rules of prosody; enarratio, exposition of content and the principles for interpretation, including the analysis of figurative language; emendatio, the rules for establishing textual authenticity and linguistic correctness, and iudicium, criticism or evaluation of writings. In the linguistic division, the object of analysis was the language of classical literary texts, the auctores, not ordinary speech.

11 8 9 10 11 See Covington, Syntactic Theory, pp. 31–2. Pinborg, ‘Speculative Grammar’, p. 256. Covington, Syntactic Theory, pp. 25, 138. Pinborg, ‘Speculative Grammar’, pp. 268ff. Grammatica and literary theory 27 From such very different starting-points both groups pushed grammar back towards the straightforward description of linguistic usage and the teaching of its rules. And it is to the continuing pedagogic tradition that we must therefore turn once again. Just as speculative grammar freed itself from Priscian in the early thirteenth century and developed new methodological concerns, so in preceptive grammar we see the emergence of new textbooks and a growing awareness of method.

John discusses orthographia, etymologia, diasyntastica (or diasynthetica) and prosodia, using the terms in newly specialised senses. Orthographia is defined as the treatment of ‘correct writing’ and embraces the traditional material on letters and syllables in Donatus and in Priscian’s Institutiones (the ‘Priscianus maior’). A treatment of accent and word endings is inserted into this section, maintaining John’s focus on prosody. Etymologia, based on the terms ‘etymon’ (true) and ‘logos’ (discourse), is defined as the treatment of ‘the truth of all parts of speech absolutely’ (pp.

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