Benjamin. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Geschichte eines by KLAUS-DIETRICH SCHUNCK


Niemand, der sich der Geschichte des Volkes Israel zuwendet, sei es dem Gesamtablauf der Geschichte dieses kleinen und doch so eminent bedeutenden Volkes, sei es nur einzelnen Perioden innerhalb seiner Geschichte, kann den Namen Benjamin unbeachtet übergehen. Benjamin battle nach der Überlieferung des Alten Testaments einer der zwölf Stämme, die die Gesamtheit ,Israel' bildeten. Doch darin erschöpft sich seine Bedeutung bei weitem noch nicht. Benjamin, räumlich einer der kleinsten der israelitischen Stämme, nahm etwa die Mitte des den zwölf Stämmen zugeschriebenen Siedlungsraumes ein, stellte additionally gleichsam das ,Herz von Israel' dar. Gerade diese Lage bedingte jedoch eine weitere Sonderstellung Benjamins: Es schob sich wie ein schmaler Riegel zwischen die beiden mächtigsten, politisch wie militärisch führenden und speedy ständig im Gegensatz zueinander stehenden Stämme Ephraim und Juda. Daß es damit zu einem Gegenstand besonderen Interesses dieser beiden Stämme, die nach der Reichsteilung von 926/25 v. Chr. die Kerngebiete der Reiche Israel und Juda bildeten, werden mußte und aus einer Behandlung der Geschichte dieser Stämme nicht auszuklammern ist, bedarf keiner weiteren Darlegungen.

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Extra info for Benjamin. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Geschichte eines israelitischen Stammes

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A. ROWLEY, From Joseph to Joshua, S. 45, 100) sehe ich mit WRIGHT, a. О. S. 75 keinen Anlaß, da ja in 10 33 gerade nicht von der Eroberung der Stadt, sondern im deutUchen Unterschied zu den Notizen über Libna, Lachis und Eglon nur von der Besiegung eines Hilfskontingents die Rede ist. Genauer ist diese Zerstörung wohl auf etwa 1230—1220 v. Chr. zu datieren (vgl. WRIGHT-EILSON, Westminster Atlas, S. , LachishIII, Text, S. ). Zu den Zerstörungen in der 2. Hälfte des 13. s allgemein vgl. auch WRIGHT, BA 18, 1955, S.

1 6 A n m . 3 . Obwohl dieser Ort erst in nachexilischer Zeit sicher bezeugt ist (vgl. Neh 12 29 und 7 28 = Esr 2 24) und mit 616 m tiefer als die umliegenden Siedlungen lag, darf er doch wohl in Anbetracht seiner Lage auf einem Höhenzuge gegenüber von dscheba' und nahe des bis chirbet ka'kül keine Siedlungen aufweisenden Seitenweges (PROCKSCH, Jesaja, S. 177) von dscheba' nach Jerusalem bereits in frühisraelitischer Zeit vorausgesetzt werden. Vgl. hierzu auch DALMAN, P J B 12, 1916, S. 51 f. Vgl.

Dazu stimmt sehr gut, daß nach den jüngst in Zentral- und Nordostgaliläa durchgeführten Untersuchungen auch hier im ausgehenden 13. Jh. zahlreiche kleinere Ansiedlungen neu angelegt wurden (vgl. Y. AHARONI, The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Upper Galilee, 1957, hebr. IssERLIN, J S S 4,1959, S. ). Dieser Vorgang findet wohl seine beste Erklärung, wenn man annimmt, daß nach der mit Hilfe der ephraimitischen und benjaminitischen Sippen erfolgten tJberwindung der Kanaanäerstädte eine wesentliche Ausdehnung der galiläischen Stämme möglich wurde.

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