Biotechnological Applications of Cold-Adapted Organisms by E. Remaut, C. Bliki, M. Iturriza-Gomara, K. Keymeulen

By E. Remaut, C. Bliki, M. Iturriza-Gomara, K. Keymeulen (auth.), Professor Rosa Margesin, Professor Franz Schinner (eds.)

There is an expanding curiosity of biotechnologists within the strength of cold-adapted organisms, considering they play an important function within the approaches of nutrient turnover and first biomass creation in chilly ecosystems. crucial merits of the applying of such organisms are the fast microbial metabolism at low temperatures, the low activation power for enzymatic substrate hydrolysis and the low thermostability of enzymes from cold-adapted organisms. merits is usually deduced from the frost hardiness and frost resistance of cold-adapted crops and animals.

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Tokyo: Maruzen, 1995:15-58 (in Japanese). 16. Maase FWJL, Van Tilburg R. The benefit of detergent enzymes under changing washing conditions. J Am Oil Chern Soc 1983; 60:1672-1675. 17. Onouchi T. A new protease for low temperature washing. Fragrance J 1985; 73:79-81 (in Japanese). 18. Okamoto I, Minagawa M. Removal of proteins from fabrics by protease: the effect of Bacillus alkaline protease in low temperature washing. Jpn Res Assn Text End-Uses 1987; 28: 167 -172. 19. Sakaguchi H. Detergents containing enzymes have been popularized with more than 80% of consumers: noteworthy alkaline cold-active lipases.

Hence ~S# IR can be readily determined. The reaction activation energy (~#) is simply ~H# + RT. Analyses of the effect of temperature on ~ (actually Ks) lead to thermodynam'ic parameters for the reversible binding of enzyme to substrate, E+S ~ ES (8) The binding enthalpy (~Ho), entropy (~So)and free energy change (~Go) can be determined from standard thermodynamic relations. Assuming that these parame- Low temperature organic phase biocatalysis using cold-adapted enzymes 41 ters are independent of temperature; ~Go = - RT In (1/~) = ~Ho - T ~SO (9) and In (1/~) = ~So/R - ~Ho/RT (10) To obtain a full appreciation of the effect of decreasing temperatures on enzyme catalysis the preceeding analyses ought to be carried for all substrates in a given reaction and for the forward as well as the reverse reaction.

107 The resultant P. putida Q5 transformant could utilize toluate as a sole carbon source at low temperatures, indicating that the mesophilic plasmid was replicated and that the genes of the mesophilic enzymes were transcribed, even at low temperatures at which the original mesophilic host cannot grow. 9 Conclusions At present, the most desirable characteristic of industrial enzymes is stability. Thermophilic enzymes from various microorganisms, including cold-adapted microorganisms, are therefore used for most industrial processes.

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