Bojové techniky starověkého světa: 3000 př.n.l. - 500 n.l. : by Simon Anglim, D-Consult (firma).

By Simon Anglim, D-Consult (firma).

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Gàfò – yàfò ‘burn’: 41 Kirill Babaev (7) gè gɔ́bí-y yáfó-wà 1SG REF\fire-DEF burn-RES ‘I have started the fire’. The numeral gílá(g) ‘one’ often demonstrates the extreme stage of this weakening of ɣ- > y- when the initial consonant is reduced to zero in a “weak” position: ílá. However, this only happens when this numeral is converted into an adverb denoting an undetermined object or meaning ‘ever, once’. It is placed after the predicate: (8) gè nú ílá tɔ́-wà 1SG REF\person one see-RES ‘I have seen a person’; (9) yè pílíɣání-y lɔ́-wà ílá?

This distribution definitely requires a more detailed research using data from both Zialo and its SWM relatives, for some of which the lexical tones are already known. (4) Common nouns vs. verbal nouns The morphosyntactic border between nouns and verbs is not that strict in Zialo as, for instance, in Indo-European languages. Each verbal root may serve as a homonymous noun by simply being put into a noun phrase as a head or adding the nominal affix of determination. , in dápá kólé-gì ‘the white bag’, lit.

Since a low-tone noun after a high-tone component only changes the tone of the first syllable, the second one remains low, so the whole compound word remains a low-tone item: jáɓélà-y ‘river bank’ (já ‘water’, Class 2 + kpèlà ‘near’, Class 1, the resulting noun behaves as a Class 1 noun); ŋàzàlòpò ‘daughter’ (ŋàzà ‘woman’, Class 1 + dòpò ‘child’, Class 1, no change in tone, the compound behaves as a Class 1 item). 4. Morphological marking Zialo nouns use affixation (mostly suffixation) and suprasegmental morphemes as inflexion markers.

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