Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data, 3rd Edition by Menno-Jan Kraak, Ferjan Ormeling

By Menno-Jan Kraak, Ferjan Ormeling

This revised and up to date version integrates the newest in glossy know-how with conventional cartographic rules. whereas delivering a superior conceptual starting place in cartographic technique, the textual content additionally introduces the very most recent advances that experience vastly motivated cartographic strategies. the hot variation displays the expanding significance of cartography because the foundation for extra geographical examine, the textual content has been up-to-date all through and chapters at the newest advancements in cartography were built-in. there's additionally a extra common emphasis on multimedia and the internet.

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This has led to potential situations where the organizations offering maps via the Internet will never know what their map products will look like, because the mapmakers on the other end have so many interactive symbolization options. In the process of acquiring and disseminating geospatial data maps are often used to represent the data. Maps can disclose or reveal geospatial patterns and help to increase insight in geospatial relationships. However, a specific design approach is required because of the nature of the WWW (see Chapter 5), especially since the WWW is highly interactive and users expect maps to be clickable.

Google Earth even allows three-dimensional flight through the landscape and cities. QXD 10/16/09 3:01 PM Page 19 Further reading gps-tracks and even maps to the Google environments to share these with others. This new but already very popular development was coined ‘neogeography’ by Turner (2006). Plate 2 shows how Google Maps accommodates the sharing of collected photos and other information. In Plate 3 it can be seen how users can drape their own maps on top of the Google Earth terrain and imagery data.

After these corrections the data frequently have to be resampled in order to fit specific grids, or to be comparable with other data sets. By being collected for grid cells (with for instance 20 ϫ 20 or 30 ϫ 30 m resolution) the data are generalized from the start. GPS data A special set of satellite data is provided by the Global Positioning System, which, on the basis of 24 satellites, is able to pinpoint one’s position threedimensionally with an accuracy of some centimetres. These GPS recordings are used to increase the accuracy of existing georeferencing methods, or can be used directly in data surveys; they can be used for both point and linear surveying.

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