By Augustine Thompson
We all know a lot concerning the Italian urban states-the "communes"-of the 12th and 13th centuries. yet historians have interested in their political accomplishments to the exclusion in their non secular existence, going as far as to name them "purely secular contrivances."
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Extra resources for Cities of God: The Religion of the Italian Communes, 1125-1325
Before ), col. (). Ibid. , col. . (). Brescia Stat. , col. (gambling); Lucca Stat. , p. – (prostitution). 32 Cities sought, in little ways, to protect the dignity of their Mother Church. At the end of the century, the archpriest of the duomo at Modena petitioned the city to purchase new clothing for Antonio, the poor fellow charged with sweeping, trimming the lights, and acting as night watchman in the duomo chapel of Saint Giminiano. The city was already providing for two other regular custodians to be properly attired, ‘‘to the honor of Saint Giminiano’’ and, of course, to the honor of Modena.
L. Salvatorelli, L’Italia comunale dal secolo alla meta` del secolo , ; on this, see Enrico Cattaneo, ‘‘Il battistero in Italia dopo il Mille,’’ Miscellanea Gilles Ge´rard Meersseman, ed. , :. . Matteo Griffoni (), . . Ibid. (), ; CCB: A, Vill. (), . On this door, see Manzini, Cenni storici, –. . , (/): –: chapels dedicated to S. Andrea, S. Maria, S. Nicola, S. Petri, S. Biagio, S. Paolo, S. Vitale, and S. Martino were all rendering tithes in .
On this church, see Galvano Fiamma, Cronica Maior Ordinis Praedicatorum, ed. Gundisalvo Odetto, in ‘‘La Cronaca maggiore dell’Ordine Domenicano di Galvano Fiamma: Frammenti inediti,’’ AFP (): , , , . 67 Sant’Eustorgio’s choir contained twenty-eight stalls, fourteen on each side facing the center, for the clergy’s chanting of the Ofﬁce. During renovations in , the prior, Peter of Verona, raised the high altar at the east end of the choir on several steps and embellished it with a ﬁne altarpiece showing Saint George.